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Getting Started with SharePoint Development and Visual Studio 2010

Written By: Ray Barley -- 2/24/2011 -- join -- contribute -- (1) comments -- printer friendly version

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Categories: SharePoint 2010, SharePoint Foundation 2010, Visual Studio

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Problem

I'm just getting started developing some customizations for SharePoint 2010 and I'd like some help getting ramped up on how to do this using Visual Studio 2010.  My initial task is to develop some web parts.

Solution

Visual Studio 2010 has built-in support for developing all sorts of SharePoint 2010 customizations.  The development environment is pretty much on par with what we've become accustomed to when we use Visual Studio to develop web applications, windows forms applications, and so on.  At a high level Visual Studio 2010 provides the following capabilities for developing SharePoint customizations:

  • SharePoint Connections node in the Server Explorer, allowing you to examine the properties of SharePoint objects
  • Project types for a variety of SharePoint customizations such as web parts, content types, workflows, and so on
  • Creation of SharePoint features; a feature encapsulates functionality and can be activated and deactivated by an administrator
  • Creation of the SharePoint solution package; the solution package is the primary deployment mechanism for SharePoint.  It contains the features and other assets to be deployed to SharePoint.
  • Deployment to a SharePoint site on your development machine for debugging and testing
  • Integrated debugging

In this tip I will discuss each of the above capabilities and use the creation of a simple web part as an example to introduce SharePoint 2010 development with Visual Studio 2010.

Development Prerequisites

Let's first lay down the basics that you need in place to start developing SharePoint customizations with Visual Studio 2010.  In no particular order here are the considerations for your development environment:

  • You need one of the following editions of Visual Studio 2010: Professional, Premium or Ultimate.  The Express versions do not have the built-in SharePoint development capabilities.  The details on the specific features in each edition can be found here.
  • Install everything you need for development on a single machine; this can and probably should be a virtual machine using Hyper-V, VMWare, Windows 7 or Windows 2008 Server boot from VHD, etc.
  • You must use a 64 bit operating system
  • Choose Windows Server 2008 (or later) as your operating system.  You can also use Windows Vista or Windows 7 but these will require a bit more work to get SharePoint and its prerequisites installed and running.  Take a look at Setting Up the Development Environment for SharePoint 2010 on Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008 for the details; be sure to read the article thoroughly and perform every step, especially for Windows Vista or Windows 7.
  • Run Visual Studio as an administrator.  Right click on it in the Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 program group and select Run as Administrator from the popup menu.

Sharepoint Server Explorer

The Server Explorer includes a SharePoint Connections node as shown below.  This allows you to drill down into a SharePoint site collection and browse the contents. 

The information is read-only so it just provides the opportunity to examine the properties of an object.  For example expand the List Templates node, expand the Tracking node, right click on Tasks, and select Properties from the popup menu.  The properties for the Tasks list template are shown below:

Project Types

When you create a new SharePoint project in Visual Studio 2010, you will see the following project types available in the SharePoint 2010 Installed Templates:

As you can see most of the typical SharePoint customizations are available.  Each one typically creates the appropriate artifacts that are necessary; you can just start writing code, debugging and testing.  There are some SharePoint customizations that Visual Studio 2010 does not directly support such as a Custom Action; for these you have to create and / or edit the necessary files on your own.

Create a New Project

In the previous section I showed the new project dialog.  In this section I will go through creating a project.  To begin select the Empty SharePoint Project and fill in the dialog as shown below:

The Empty SharePoint Project is a good starting point; you can add specific SharePoint items to the project.  Click OK to continue and the SharePoint Customization Wizard is displayed as shown below:

The information requested is the site collection to use for debugging and whether to deploy a sandboxed or farm solution.  It is a good idea to create a site collection to use just for debugging and testing, rather than using the default site collection that gets created for you when you install and configure SharePoint.  The reason is that if you get things fouled up you can delete the site collection, create a new one, and continue.  The farm solution runs with full trust whereas the sandboxed solution runs with limited trust.  The sandboxed solution is a great feature to use; however, there are various limitations such as restrictions on the SharePoint API, no access to the file system, and so on.  For our example we can use a sandboxed solution.  Click Finish to complete the creation of the new project.

The Solution Explorer and Project Properties are shown below (if necessary click View on the menu then select Solution Explorer):

The above shows us the starting point for the Empty SharePoint Project.  The main points are:

  • MSSharePointTipsWebParts is the name of our project
  • The project properties are shown in the Properties window
  • The Features node is the container for the features that will be created as we add SharePoint items to the project
  • The Package node is the container for the information required to package the features and other assets into a SharePoint solution file for deployment

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